Canada's Program on Crimes Against Humanity and War Crimes - 2011–2015: 13th Report
War Crimes Program Activities from April 1, 2011, to March 31, 2015
Canada uses a holistic approach to respond to persons believed to have committed or been complicit in war crimes, crimes against humanity or genocide. The War Crimes Program has several legislative remedies at its disposal to enforce in the criminal, immigration or citizenship realms. In the case of some individuals, all three avenues are pursued. Refusal of visas overseas is the first of the immigration-based remedies and seeks to prevent persons believed to have committed or been complicit in war crimes, crimes against humanity or genocide from entering Canada. However, no prevention system is 100 percent successful; despite diligent screening measures, some of these persons are still found in Canada. For example, when an individual arrives at a Canadian port of entry, an allegation of inadmissibility results in the person being reported and referred for an admissibility hearing, and a finding of inadmissibility results in the issuance of a removal order and the individual not being allowed entry. Alternatively, information about a person’s involvement in war crimes may arise after the individual is granted entry into Canada. Generally speaking, findings of inadmissibility of requests to enter Canada or ineligibility of refugee claims are examples of immigration and citizenship-based remedies that take place at ports of entry in Canada and overseas. Further immigration remedies include revocation of citizenship, refusal of citizenship applications under the Citizenship Act and inadmissibility reports and removal orders issued under the Immigration and Refugee Protection Act. Criminal investigations may be initiated by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police and can lead to prosecutions in Canada. Canada may also receive extradition requests from foreign states or an international criminal court or tribunal to arrest and surrender a person for prosecution or sentencing.
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