The historical overview that follows is based on a paper prepared for the International Cooperation Group by historian Owen Carrigan.
 Ivy Pinchbeck and Margaret Hewitt, Children in English Society, volume 2, page 352. More generally, this two-volume history provides a particularly well researched account of the evolution of the attitude to children in England.
André Lachance, "Women and crime in Canada in the early eighteenth century, 1712-1759", in R. C. Macleod (editor), Lawful Authority, pages 9-21, at page 15.
An Act respecting Industrial Schools, Statutes of the Province of Ontario, 1874, chapter 29.
An Act respecting Arrest, Trial and Imprisonment of Youthful Offenders, Statutes of Canada, 1894, volume 1, chapter 58.
An Act to amend the Act respecting Procedure in Criminal Cases and other matters relating to Criminal Law, Statutes of Canada, 1875, volume 1, chapter 43.
An Act for establishing a Juvenile Reformatory, Statutes of British Columbia, 1889-1890, chapter 21.
The Criminal Code, 1892, Statutes of Canada, 1892, volumes 1 and 2, chapter 29.
 The Juvenile Delinquents Act, Statutes of Canada, 1908, chapter 40.