The Evolution of Juvenile Justice in Canada


  • [1] The historical overview that follows is based on a paper prepared for the International Cooperation Group by historian Owen Carrigan.
  • [2] Ivy Pinchbeck and Margaret Hewitt, Children in English Society, volume 2, page 352. More generally, this two-volume history provides a particularly well researched account of the evolution of the attitude to children in England.
  • [3] André Lachance, "Women and crime in Canada in the early eighteenth century, 1712-1759", in R. C. Macleod (editor), Lawful Authority, pages 9-21, at page 15.
  • [4] An Act respecting Industrial Schools, Statutes of the Province of Ontario, 1874, chapter 29.
  • [5] An Act respecting Arrest, Trial and Imprisonment of Youthful Offenders, Statutes of Canada, 1894, volume 1, chapter 58.
  • [6] An Act to amend the Act respecting Procedure in Criminal Cases and other matters relating to Criminal Law, Statutes of Canada, 1875, volume 1, chapter 43.
  • [7] An Act for establishing a Juvenile Reformatory, Statutes of British Columbia, 1889-1890, chapter 21.
  • [8] The Criminal Code, 1892, Statutes of Canada, 1892, volumes 1 and 2, chapter 29.
  • [9] The Juvenile Delinquents Act, Statutes of Canada, 1908, chapter 40.
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