Drug Treatment Court Funding Program Evaluation

Appendix A: Drug Treatment Court Profiles (Edmonton, Ottawa, Regina, Toronto, Vancouver, Winnipeg)

Edmonton Drug Treatment and Community Restoration Court

Opening Date

December 2005

Governance Structure

The program operates within the Provincial Court of Alberta. An EDTCRC program management committee is in charge of governing the program, chaired by the Executive Director of the John Howard Society.

DTC Staff

There are seven staff members on the EDTCRC team, six full-time (including one seconded position from Alberta Justice and Solicitor General) and one casual staff, including an executive director, an executive assistant/program support, two case managers, a probation officer, a peer support and transition coordination, and a casual substance analysis worker.

Eligibility Requirements

In an initial screening process, the Crown determines whether the participant meets the following criteria:

  • Applicant must be non-violent, must not have gang affiliations, and must not have committed his offence for commercial gain.
  • The offence must be attributable to a drug addiction.
  • Children under the age of 18 must not have witnessed or been involved in the offence.
  • The accused must not have a history of breaching bail or failing to appear in court.

If applicants pass the initial screening, they also complete an intake interview and addictions assessment where their motivations for joining the program and their readiness for such an intensive program are also considered.

Treatment Activities

The treatment program offered by the EDTCRC lasts from 8 to 18 months. The program is based on an I-TRIP created in consultation with the case manager, and includes the following:

  • regular court appearances
  • random drug testing
  • case managers meet with participants at least once a week to provide supportive counselling and supervision
  • referrals to community supports
  • education or employment training

Treatment Providers

Participants are referred to pre-existing day or residential treatment programs, as necessary.

For example, JoMac Counselling Services Ltd. and Equinox Therapeutic and Consulting Services provide psychological counselling.

Residential Treatment Programs/Housing Providers

Participants are referred to pre-existing day or residential treatment programs and psychological counseling services.

Graduation Requirements

To be eligible for graduation, participants must have been in the program for at least one year, have completed their I-TRIP and their volunteer hours, and be drug free for a minimum of four months.

Target Capacity

Minimum 30

Sources: EDTCRC Process Evaluation Report (University of Alberta, 2007), Alberta Drug Treatment Court Services Project – Application for Funding (Alberta Justice and Attorney General, 2013)

Ottawa Drug Treatment Court

Opening Date: February 2006

Governance Structure

The program is administered by Rideauwood Addiction and Family Services, in coordination with the provincial court system in Ontario. Rideauwood directs the program.

DTC Staff

The treatment representatives of the ODTC are all from Rideauwood, including a program manager, a probation officer, three case managers, an administrative assistant, and a nurse practitioner.

Eligibility Requirements

There are five specific criteria for entry into the ODTC:

  • The individual must plead guilty, accepting responsibility for his offence.
  • The applicant must voluntarily consent to participate in treatment.
  • The individual must be charged with certain non-violent offences.
  • Offences must have been motivated by/connected to drug dependence.
  • The applicant must be approved by the Crown Attorney, Rideauwood, and the Drug Treatment Court judge.

Treatment Activities

Treatment involves the following:

  • ongoing assessment activities
  • formal addiction group sessions
  • individual therapy sessions
  • residential and outpatient treatment programs
  • case management services
  • health and social services
  • regular and random urine testing
  • training, continuing education, and employment services

Program engagement will last for a minimum of nine months, and program requirements (number of court appearances or treatment sessions) can be reduced at any point during the treatment period.

Treatment Providers

Most of the treatment is provided by Rideauwood Addiction and Family Services; however, additional treatment is provided by the John Howard Society and the Somerset West Community Health Centre.

Residential Treatment Programs/Housing Providers

Rideauwood has a contract with Ottawa Withdrawal Management for the provision of one bed (short term stay, maximum of seven days).

Graduation Requirements

There are three levels of graduation from the ODTC:

Level 1:

  • at least 9 months of participation
  • abstinence from all substances for at least six consecutive months

Level 2:

  • at least 9 months of participation
  • abstinence from all substances for at least three consecutive months

Level 3:

  • at least 16 months of participation

Level 1 graduates receive a maximum sentence of one-day probation. Level 2 graduates receive a maximum sentence of 12 months’ probation. Level 3 graduates receive a maximum sentence of 18 months’ probation.

When preparing their application for graduation, participants are required to include a reintegration plan that describes how they will maintain abstinence, prevent recidivism, and remain engaged in recovery activities in the community.

Target capacity

35

Sources: Evaluation of the Drug Treatment Court of Ottawa: Year One (Bourgon & Price, 2007); ODTC Case Management Guidelines (Rideauwood Addiction and Family Services, 2011a); ODTC Forms and Policies (Rideauwood Addiction and Family Services, 2011b)

Regina Drug Treatment Court

Opening Date

October 2006

Governance Structure

The RDTC is governed by a Governance Committee with representatives from Justice Canada, Saskatchewan Justice, Saskatchewan Health, Regina Police Service, and the RCMP. The Governance Committee meets quarterly and provides overall direction to the RDTC. A smaller Management Committee, that contains representatives of the operational side of the Ministry of Justice and Attorney General and Regina Qu’Appelle Health Region, provides management direction to the DTC Program Manager.

DTC Staff

The program treatment team of the RDTC includes a program manager, an addictions psychiatric nurse, three addictions counsellors, an income assistance worker, an administrative assistant, and a probation officer.

Eligibility Requirements

Eligibility for the RDTC is based on six criteria:

  • Circumstances of the crime — type of victim, location, apparent intent
  • Seriousness of the crime
  • Violence — whether the crime itself involved violence, and whether the offender has a history of violence
  • Offence characteristics — whether the offence was gang-related or involved children
  • Type of crime — the exact nature of the crime and how drugs were involved
  • Criminal history — what kind of crimes the offender has committed in the past and whether violence has been involved

Treatment Activities

Treatment includes four parts - assessment followed by three sequential tracks:

  • Assessment
  • (Track 1) Contemplation to preparation stage of change
  • (Track 2) Preparation to action stage of change
  • (Track 3) Action stage to relapse prevention

Treatment modalities employed by the program include the following:

  • Individual counselling
  • Group therapy
  • AA/NA/12 Step meetings
  • Aboriginal-centered programming
  • Detox and treatment facilities

Treatment Providers

Treatment services are provided mainly by the program itself. Participants are referred to other service agencies as necessary.

Residential Treatment Programs/Housing Providers

Participants are referred to YWCA, YMCA, The Salvation Army, and Welfare Rights for housing.

Graduation Requirements

To graduate from the program, participants must:

  • have abstained from using all substances for three months
  • have found stable housing
  • have participated in education activities or employment
  • have participated in planned recovery activities
  • have no new substantive criminal charges for six months

Target capacity

30

Sources: RDTC: Regina Drug Treatment Court Implementation & Developmental Evaluation Report (Smithworks Surveysolutions, 2008), RDTC – Application for Funding (Saskatchewan Ministry of Justice and Attorney General, 2012b), Interim Report on a Partnership to Address Housing Needs among Women Participating in the Regina Drug Treatment Court (Smithworks Surveysolutions, 2013), Regina Drug Treatment Court Handbook (RDTC, 2014a)

Toronto Drug Treatment Court

Opening Date

December 1998

Governance Structure

The program operates within the Ontario Provincial Court system. It has two primary governance bodies:

  • Operations Committee — directs policy and practice of the court and treatment components of the TDTC; and
  • Community Advisory Council (CAC) – comprised of representatives from justice, treatment, alumni, government organizations and inter-sectoral community agencies. The CAC acts in an advisory capacity to the TDTC, liaises with community partners, and makes recommendations to the Operations Committee.

Additionally, since the treatment component of the TDTC is delivered by CAMH, the program is also governed by CAMH’s own internal policies, structures and procedures.

DTC Staff

The TDTC treatment team includes a court liaison, three case managers/therapists, a peer support worker, a program manager, a program assistant, and an administrative secretary.

Eligibility Requirements

The judge decides who is eligible for the program, in consultation with the treatment team and Crown prosecutor, according to these guidelines:

  • Must have clinically demonstrated addiction and criminal activity associated with that addiction
  • Must not have violent and/or commercial drug trafficking convictions or mental health concerns that would interfere with their participation in the program
  • Must not have involved anyone under the age of 18 in the offence
  • Must not have committed their crime at or near a school or playground

Treatment Activities

Participants go through a structured outpatient program with various stages specifically designed for people with cocaine, methamphetamine or opiate addictions. Treatment includes the following:

  • individual assessment and evaluative follow-up
  • individual treatment planning
  • individual counselling sessions
  • psycho-educational group sessions
  • process (therapy) groups
  • recreational groups

Treatment staff work closely with community organizations to meet the needs of participants.

Clients are often referred to residential treatment if they are struggling with their recovery process. Most clients will attend one or more residential programs during their involvement in the program.

Treatment Providers

The majority of treatment is provided by the CAMH.

Residential Treatment Programs/Housing Providers

The TDTC has developed permanent, funded partnerships with the John Howard Society and Houselink Community Homes, as well as unfunded partnerships with a number of other community organizations and agencies for short-term and permanent supportive housing to TDTC clients.

Graduation Requirements

Basic requirements for graduation are as follows:

  • completed and complied with all phases of the treatment over a minimum 12-month period
  • not been charged with any new offences for at least three months prior to graduation
  • abstained from drug use for at least three months prior to graduation
  • found and secured stable housing
  • involved in employment, volunteer work, or academic upgrading

At graduation, participants receive non-custodial sentences for initial charges of 6 to 12 months’ probation. After this probation, they are formally released from the TDTC program.

Target Capacity

48, but usually operates with 50 clients plus continuing care clients

Sources: TDTC Policy and Procedures Manual (TDTC, 2008), TDTC – Application for Funding (CAMH, 2012)

Drug Treatment Court of Vancouver

Opening Date:

December 2001

Governance Structure

The Provincial Director of the Strategic Operations Division of the British Columbia Corrections Branch and the Associate Chief Federal Prosecutor of Federal Prosecution Services co-chair the DTCV Steering Committee. Committee members include BC Corrections, Justice Canada, Vancouver Police, the RCMP, Provincial Court Judiciary, Provincial Crown counsel, BC Legal Services, Vancouver Coastal Health, BC Ministry of Housing and Social Development, and the DTCV Program Manager. The Steering Committee oversees the operation of the program.

DTC Staff

Staff at the DTCV include a program manager, clinical supervisor, a psychologist, doctor, nurse, and a case management team consisting of probation officers and addictions counsellors, and an Employment Assistance worker (EAW).

Eligibility Requirements

Participants in the DTCV must meet these requirements:

  • must have a drug addiction
  • offences must be motivated by an addiction
  • cannot be serving a sentence or have outstanding charges on violent offences
  • cannot be a member of a gang
  • cannot be a former DTCV graduate

Treatment Activities

Participants go through a four-phase treatment program, which includes the following:

  • individual counselling
  • group counselling
  • detoxification
  • residential recovery
  • residential treatment

Specific programs offered by the DTCV include Criminal and Addictive Thinking and Behaviour, Post Traumatic Stress Disorder and Addiction, and Violence in Relationships.

Treatment staff work closely with community organizations to meet the needs of participants.

Treatment Providers

The VCHA operates the treatment component of the program.

Residential Treatment Programs/Housing Providers

The DTCV care team works in collaboration with the on-site EAW to secure housing for clients, usually in market housing or recovery houses.

Graduation Requirements

To graduate from the program, participants must have achieved the following:

  • prepared an aftercare plan
  • completed all treatment phases
  • abstained from drug use for at least three months prior to graduation
  • not received any new charges for at least six months prior to graduation
  • been working or participating in academic upgrading for at least two months prior to graduation
  • found stable housing
  • established connections in the community to support ongoing recovery

Target capacity

100

Sources: Drug treatment court of Vancouver program evaluation: Final evaluation report (Millson et al., 2005), DTCV – Application for Funding (DTCV, 2013), Drug Treatment Court of Vancouver (Legal Services Society of BC, 2014), DTCV Participant Manual (DTCV, 2014)

Winnipeg Drug Treatment Court

Opening Date:

January 2006

Governance Structure

A WDTC Steering Committee established protocols and a model for the evaluation of the court, as well as key policies between 2006 and 2012. A new governance model was adopted that replaced the Steering Committee with an Advisory Committee. The Advisory Committee meets quarterly to provide guidance and advice on issues related to planning, protocols and evaluation frameworks; to review evaluation reports of the WDTC; and to provide input and advice on new initiatives and/or changes to the program.

Additionally, there are two working groups for the WDTC: the Court Team, which is chaired by the Provincial Court of Manitoba (represented by a judge of the WDTC), and a Treatment Team, which is chaired by AFM. These working groups meet regularly to support the day-to-day operations of the program and to ensure ongoing communication between the court and the treatment/service delivery aspects of the WDTC.

WDTC Staff

The WDTC staff includes a unit supervisor (whose salary is currently being donated by AFM), four counsellors (who do case management as well as treatment), and one administrative support person. The WDTC has been provided with the services of one probation officer one day a week.

Partners

The WDTC has formed a number of partnerships with the following service providers:

  • Behaviour Health Foundation
  • Tamarack Rehab Inc.
  • Two Ten Recovery Inc.
  • ARI Addiction Recovery Inc.
  • The Main Street Project Inc.
  • Peguis Al-Care Treatment Centre
  • Native Women’s Transition Centre
  • Elizabeth Fry Society
  • Restorative Resolutions (informal partnership that provides probation services)
  • Manitoba Housing
  • Employment and Income Assistance Program

Eligibility Requirements

The WDTC is available to offenders who meet the following criteria:

  • Offenders must be assessed as being dependent on drugs, and their crime must have been caused or motivated by their addiction.
  • Offenders must be able to attend all aspects of the program.
  • Offenders must enter the treatment program voluntarily and be willing to comply with WDTC conditions and attendance requirements.
  • Offenders must be charged with a non-violent crime.
  • Offenders must demonstrate a commitment to abstain from substance abuse.
  • Offenders charged with a violent crime or who are gang members are not eligible for the program.

Treatment Activities

The WDTC uses a standalone biopsychophysical, client-centred model with five phases prior to graduation:

  • Referral
  • Orientation/assessment
  • Stabilization
  • Intensive treatment
  • Maintenance

Specific treatment activities include the following:

  • individual counselling sessions
  • group counselling sessions
  • AA/NA/CA meetings
  • residential treatment, as required
  • continuing care (for alumni, up to one year after graduation)

The approach to treatment is “harm reduction”, which accepts the inevitability of some relapses during the treatment period.

Treatment Providers

The program has made substantial use of the Behaviour Health Foundation for treatment services, as well as self-help groups like Narcotics Anonymous; however, most of the treatment is provided by staff.

Residential Treatment Programs/Housing Providers

The WDTC has established a relationship with the Manitoba Housing Authority.

Graduation Requirements

Participants are eligible to graduate from the program when they have completed all the requirements for Phase 5:

  • They are currently working on educational upgrading and/or have or are seeking steady employment.
  • They have not committed any offences in the last six months.
  • They have attained four months of sobriety.

Before graduating, participants must complete an exit interview and have a plan for aftercare.

Target Capacity

30

Sources: Winnipeg Drug Treatment Court Interim Evaluation (Gorkoff et al., 2007), Housing Supports for Drug Court Participants Who are Homeless or At-Risk of Homelessness: Evaluation - Final Report (Weinrath, 2014), WDTC Application for Funding (Addictions Foundation of Manitoba, 2012), WDTC Program Evaluation 2010-2011 (Weinrath & Lumsden, 2011), WDTC Program Evaluation for Calendar Year 2014 (Weinrath & Watts, 2013)

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