JustFacts

Trends in Adult Federal Offenders under Community Supervision

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April 2018

Research and Statistics Division

This fact sheet is based on data obtained through special requests to Correctional Service Canada (CSC)Footnote 1 and Statistics Canada (Census). It examines the numberFootnote 2 and rateFootnote 3 of federal adult offenders under community supervision over time, and draws comparisons between Indigenous and non-Indigenous groups. Trend analyses were based on data points for the last three census years (2006, 2011 and 2016).

The overall rate of adult Canadians under community supervision has remained stable since 2006; the total number of federal offenders under community supervision increased from 2005/06 to 2015/16.

The overall rate of adult Canadians under community supervision remained stable from 2006 (30.4 per 100,000 population) to 2016 (30.3 per 100,000 population).

Over the past 10 years, the number of adult offenders under community supervision increased 13.1%. In 2005/06, there were 7,359 offenders under community supervision compared to 8,323 in 2015/16.

While the rate of Indigenous adult Canadians under community supervision has decreased over the past decade, it remains 5 times higher than that of non-Indigenous adult Canadians. The overall number of both Indigenous and non-Indigenous offenders under community supervision continues to increase.

The rate of the Indigenous population under community supervision decreased 7.5% over the past 10 years. In 2006, the rate of the Indigenous population under community supervision was 137.4 per 100,000 Indigenous people. The rate decreased in 2011 (118.2 per 100,000 Indigenous adults), but then increased to 127.1 per 100,000 Indigenous adults in 2016. The number of Indigenous offenders under community supervision increased 41.1% over the past 10 years. In 2005/06, there were 1,024 Indigenous offenders under community supervision compared to 1,445 in 2015/16.

It should be highlighted that the slight decrease in the rate of the Indigenous population under community supervision is not reflective of a decrease in the Indigenous population under community supervision, but rather an increase of Indigenous adults in the Canadian population.

Further, it should be noted that the increasing number of Indigenous adult Canadians under community supervision is not necessarily a negative situation if this means that Indigenous offenders are being released earlier in their sentences. However, data on offender release trends over time confirm that this is not the case. In fact, Indigenous offenders are more likely to serve longer portions of their sentences in custody compared to non-Indigenous offenders, a trend that has increased over the past 10 years.Footnote 4

The rate of the non-Indigenous population under community supervision remained stable from 2006 to 2016 (27.0 to 26.1 per 100,000 non-Indigenous adults, respectively). The number of non-Indigenous offenders under community supervision increased 8.6% in the past 10 years. In 2005/06, there were 6,335 non-Indigenous offenders under community supervision compared to 6,878 in 2015/16.

Although the rates for both Indigenous and non-Indigenous men under community supervision have decreased over the past decade, the rate of Indigenous men under community supervision remains 5 times higher. The number of both Indigenous and non-Indigenous male offenders under community supervision continues to increase.

The rate of Indigenous men under community supervision decreased 8.5% in the past 10 years. In 2006, the rate of Indigenous men under community supervision was 262.4 per 100,000 Indigenous men. The rate saw a large decrease in 2011 (227.2 per 100,000 Indigenous men) and then increased in 2016 (240.0 per 100,000 Indigenous men). The number of Indigenous men under community supervision increased 39.7% in the past 10 years. In 2005/06, there were 926 Indigenous men under community supervision compared to 1,294 in 2015/16. Again, this was due to an increase of Indigenous adults in the Canadian population rather than a decrease in the Indigenous population under community supervision.

The community supervision rate of non-Indigenous men decreased 4.3% in the past 10 years. In 2006, the community supervision rate was 52.5 per 100,000 non-Indigenous men compared to 50.2 per 100,000 non-Indigenous men in 2016. The number of non-Indigenous men under community supervision increased 8.1% in the past 10 years. In 2005/06, there were 5,961 non-Indigenous men under community supervision compared to 6,445 in 2015/16.

The rates for both Indigenous and non-Indigenous women under community supervision have remained stable over the past decade; however, the rate of Indigenous women under community supervision continues to be much higher (8 times) than that of non-Indigenous women. The number of both Indigenous and non-Indigenous female offenders under community supervision continues to increase.

The rate of Indigenous women under community supervision remained stable from 2006 to 2016 (25.0 to 25.3 per 100,000 Indigenous women, respectively).Footnote 5 The number of Indigenous women under community supervision increased 54.1% in the past 10 years.Footnote 6 In 2005/06, there were 98 Indigenous women under community supervision compared to 151 in 2015/16.

The rate of non-Indigenous women under community supervision remained stable from 2006 to 2016 (3.1 to 3.2 per 100,000 non-Indigenous women, respectively). The number of non-Indigenous women under community supervision increased 15.8% in the past 10 years.Footnote 7 In 2005/06, there were 374 non-Indigenous women under community supervision compared to 433 in 2015/16.

Table 1. Federal Offenders under Community Supervision, Rates per 100,000 Population, 2006 to 2016.
Federal Offenders under Community Supervision 2006 2011 2016 % Change 2006 to 2016
Indigenous Men 262.4 227.2 240.0 -8.5
Indigenous Women 25.0 20.2 25.3 1.2
Indigenous Total 137.4 118.2 127.1 -7.5
Non-Indigenous Men 52.5 49.3 50.2 -4.3
Non-Indigenous Women 3.1 3.4 3.2 3.2
Non-Indigenous Total 27.0 26.9 26.1 -3.3
Federal Offenders under Community Supervision Total 30.4 30.2 30.3 -0.3
Table 2. Federal Offenders under Community Supervision, Numbers, 2005/06 to 2015/16.
Federal Offenders under Community Supervision 2005/06 2010/11 2015/16 % Change 2005/06 to 2015/16
Indigenous Men 926 993 1,294 39.7
Indigenous Women 98 98 151 54.1
Indigenous Total 1,024 1,091 1,445 41.1
Non-Indigenous Men 5,961 6,338 6,445 8.1
Non-Indigenous Women 374 409 433 15.8
Non-Indigenous Total 6,335 6,747 6,878 8.6
Federal Offenders under Community Supervision Total 7,359 7,838 8,323 13.1
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