Research on Justice Issues

The Research and Statistics Division (RSD) at the Department of Justice produces and communicates high-quality empirical research and statistical analysis using social science methods as an integral part of the evidence-based policy process.

While some reports are written in-house by RSD researchers, other reports are written by external subject matter specialists, who are contracted by the RSD to answer specific questions in their fields of expertise.

Below is a list of reports produced by the RSD. Click on the hyperlink to view reports that have been posted to the website or click on the email address to request a pdf copy.

Released in November 2018

Legal Aid in Canada, 2016/2017 (2018) Lisa Ha
This report provides information on revenues, expenditures, personnel, and caseload statistics associated with the delivery and administration of legal aid in Canada in 2016/2017

From 2016 to 2018, the RSD conducted youth engagement projects that explored youths’ views, perceptions, and expectations of reform in support of the Criminal Justice System (CJS) review.

The full report of the 2016/17 A Justice System We Want: Youth Engagement on the Criminal Justice System is available upon request. If you would like to receive a copy of this report, please send an email to rsd-drs@justice.gc.ca

An explanation of the methodology for the 2017/18 A Justice System We Want: Youth Engagement on the Criminal Justice System is available as a separate report. If you would like to receive a copy, please send an email to rsd-drs@justice.gc.ca

Results from these conversations are summarized in short Research at a Glance publications on the following topics:

  1. Judicial Discretion and Mandatory Minimum Penalties (MMPs)
  2. Bail and Administration of Justice Offences (AOJOs)
  3. Restorative Justice
  4. Indigenous Overrepresentation in the Criminal Justice System (CJS)
  5. Overrepresentation of Persons with Mental Health and Cognitive Functioning Issues in the Criminal Justice system (CJS)
  6. Performance measurement in the Criminal Justice System (CJS)
  7. Victims' Views and Expectations
  8. Sentencing Considerations
The Impact of DNA Hits on Criminal Investigations in Ontario (2015) André Solecki and Angela Bressan.

This research was conducted to examine how DNA offender 'hits' from the Convicted Offenders Index (COI) of persons convicted of certain designated offences may assist police in Ontario.

If you would like to receive a copy of this report, please send an email to rsd-drs@justice.gc.ca

The Role and Utility of the Preliminary Inquiry in the Canadian Criminal Justice System and the Impact of the Bill C-15A Amendments (2008) Kelly E. Morton Bourgon and Kimberly Burnett.

The purpose of this study was to discover and present the views of participants in the criminal justice system regarding the role and utility of the preliminary inquiry.

If you would like to receive a copy of this report, please send an email to rsd-drs@justice.gc.ca

JustFacts: Indigenous overrepresentation in provincial/ territorial corrections

2018

Research in Brief: Family Violence: Relevance in Family Law
This report offers an examination of data on violence within families, highlighting how it may be a relevant factor to consider in a family law dispute.
What You Don't Know Can Hurt You: The importance of family violence screening tools for family law practitioners - Pamela C. Cross, Sara Crann, Kate Mazzuocco, and Mavis Morton
The report provides an overview of the methodology used to identify and analyze Family Violence Screenings Tools (FVSTs), identifies the differences between risk assessment and screening tools, and provides a list and summary of each of the FVSTs included in the review as well as an analysis of commonalities.
Victim Services in Canada

This document lists the programs and services considered to be part of the formal victim services programming in each jurisdiction. It also provides information on related agencies that provide critical services to victims of crime.

If you would like to receive a copy of this report, please send an email to rsd-drs@justice.gc.ca

Access to Justice in Both Official Languages: Jury Recruitment - Natacha Bourgon

This report examines the topic of access to justice in both official languages in the context of jury trials. The report presents the findings of a survey conducted to ascertain how French-speaking and/or bilingual jurors are selected, the legislative frameworks that guide the recruitment and selection process, and an evaluation of possible strategies to improve the process. The report also presents available data on jury trials for each jurisdictions.

If you would like to receive a copy of this report, please send an email to rsd-drs@justice.gc.ca

The National Justice Survey 2017: Issues in Canada's Criminal Justice System

In 2017, the Department of Justice contracted EKOS Research Associates to conduct research on Canadians' views and perceptions of the criminal justice system (CJS). The study was made of four components: two surveys, a series of focus groups and interviews conducted with Canadians across the country. Summaries of the results broken down by subject are available as Research at a Glance publications and Infographics. The final reports and data tables are available on the Library and Archives Canada (LAC) site. The databases for these surveys will be made available on the Open Government Portal in Summer 2018.

A full report is available in HTML at Library and Archives.

Short summaries of the results of the National Justice Survey 2017: Issues in Canada's Criminal Justice System are available as the following Research at a Glance publications:

  1. Community-based Sentencing
  2. Administration of Justice Offences
  3. Discretion in Sentencing
  4. Diversion
  5. Mandatory Minimum Penalties
  6. Problem-solving Justice
  7. Restorative Justice
  8. Sentencing Commissions and Guidelines

As part of the National Justice survey 2017, the RSD contracted EKOS Research Associates to conduct an online public opinion survey with a sample of Canadians who received invitations through email, Facebook and Twitter (called an “open link” sample). This group of people, who reported higher levels of knowledge regarding issues such as sentencing and MMPs, were asked the same questions as the representative sample of Canadians. Their responses are analyzed and compared with the representative sample in Research at a Glance summaries on the following topics:

  1. Mandatory Minimum Penalties (MMPs) - Responses from a self-selected sample
  2. Diversion, Discretion, and Sentencing Commissions - Responses from a self-selected sample

Infographics from the National Justice Survey 2017:

  1. Mandatory Minimum Penalties (MMPs)
  2. Discretion in Sentencing
  3. Administration of Justice Offences (AOJOs)
  4. Diversion
  5. Sentencing Commissions and Guidelines
  6. Restorative Justice
  7. Problem Solving Approaches to Justice
  8. Community-based Sentencing (new)

JustFacts - Child Support Cases, 2016-17

JustFacts: Trends in Adult Federal Offenders under Community Supervision

JustFacts: Trends in Adult Federal Custody Populations

Research Note: Estimating the impact of lowering the legal limit for impaired driving in Canada

This Research Note provides an estimate of the possible impact on police, courts and corrections of lowering the current legal limit of alcohol from over 80 mg of alcohol in 100 ml of blood to at, or above, 50 mg of alcohol in 100 ml of blood.

If you would like to receive a copy of this report, please send an email to rsd-drs@justice.gc.ca

2017

Understanding the Development and Impact of Child Advocacy Centres (CACs)

A study commissioned by the Department of Justice to better understand how Canadian CACs are developing and operating. It was designed to measure client satisfaction with CACs and to examine client satisfaction with the criminal justice system’s process and outcomes.

If you would like to receive a copy of this report, please send an email to rsd-drs@justice.gc.ca

Access to Justice for Indigenous Adult Victims of Sexual Assault - Patricia Barkaskas and Sarah Hunt

This report explores what ‘justice’ looks like for adult Indigenous victims of sexual assault.

If you would like to receive a copy of this report, please send an email to rsd-drs@justice.gc.ca

National Justice Survey 2016: Canada's Criminal Justice System

The National Justice Survey 2016 focuses on the criminal justice system (CJS) to inform the current criminal justice system review and engage with adults 18+ from across Canada.

Specifically, this nationally representative research involved a traditional public opinion research survey, in informed choice survey and in person and online focus groups. The purpose of this research was to explore Canadians' views perceptions and expectations for the CJS, the values they want it to reflect, objectives of the criminal justice system, and priorities and concerns with respect to criminal justice issues. This work was undertaken to support reforms and new initiatives in this area. A full report and data tables are now available.

A full report is available in HTML at Library and Archives and data tables are available at the Open Government Portal.

If you would like to receive a PDF copy of this report, please send an email to rsd-drs@justice.gc.ca

The Canadian Criminal Justice System: Overall Trends and Key Pressure Points
This paper provides a statistical overview of the trends and pressure points currently impacting the effectiveness and efficiency of the Canadian criminal Justice system. The information presented on the various intersecting issues outlines the need for a broader, comprehensive criminal law policy reform.
Considerations for determining parenting arrangements: factors that influence outcomes
This document consists of three parts. Section one describes important findings on the effects of divorce on children from a risk and resiliency perspective and lists a number of important considerations. Section two explores the impact of time spent parenting, providing a description of how time has been conceptualized in divorce/separation and parenting research, and lists the core themes/findings from the academic research. Finally, section three lists and describes common factors that are important for child outcomes.
The Costs of Charter Litigation - Alan Young
In this brief report, the author will address the issue of whether Charter challenges are, in fact, beyond the means of ordinary Canadians by looking at the costs incurred both in challenges this lawyer has advanced and in other challenges for which there is some information regarding the costs of the challenge.

JustFacts: Criminal court case processing

JustFacts: Jordan - Statistics Related to Delay in the Criminal Justice System

JustFacts: The Impact of Mandatory Minimum Penalties on Indigenous, Black and Other Visible Minorities

JustFacts: Bail Violations, AOJOs, and Remand

JustFacts: Child Custody and Access

JustFacts: Data Sources on Indigenous Victimization

JustFacts: Victimization of Indigenous Children and Youth

JustFacts: Missing and Murdered Indigenous Women and Girls

JustFacts: Victimization of Indigenous Women and Girls

JustFacts: Cannabis crime statistics in Canada, 2016

JustFacts: Preliminary Inquiries

JustFacts: Sexual Violations against Children and Child Pornography

JustFacts: Sexual Assault

JustFacts: Intimate Partner Violence

JustFacts: Sentencing in Canada

JustFacts: Indigenous overrepresentation in the criminal justice system

Guilty Pleas among Indigenous People in Canada - Angela Bressan and Kyle Coady

The overrepresentation of Indigenous people in custody is a serious challenge that confronts Canada’s justice system. To explore the issue of guilty pleas among Indigenous people, the Research and Statistics Division at the Department of Justice Canada interviewed justice system representatives from the Indigenous Courtwork Program, legal aid, and prosecutions.

Sentencing for Intimate Partner Violence in Canada: Has s.718.2(a)(ii) Made a Difference? - Isabel Grant, Professor, Peter A. Allard School of Law, The University of British Columbia

This study examines the use of s.718.2(a)(ii) in case law since its enactment in 1996. Using a sample of cases decided under s.718.2(a)(ii) this study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of this legislative mandatory aggravating factor. The primary sample is comprised of all appellate cases referencing the section as well as all trial cases referencing the section from the years 1998, 2007 and 2015.

If you would like to receive a copy of this report, please send an email to rsd-drs@justice.gc.ca

Development of an Access to Justice Index for Federal Administrative Bodies - Susan McDonald

The Department of Justice initiated the Access to Justice Index for Federal Administrative Bodies project in 2014 with the goal of developing and piloting a quantitative measurement (the “Index”) of access to justice in the context of Canadian administrative law. The Index provides the administrative body a score, out of 100, which describes how well it is doing to ensure access to justice for its users/clients/parties. This report focuses on the concepts underlying the Index and how it was developed.

Spotlight on Gladue: Challenges, Experiences, and Possibilities in Canada’s Criminal Justice System

This paper is an update to an earlier report and is designed to review the Gladue and Ipeelee decisions and to summarize the experiences of court officials and Indigenous accused who have participated in Indigenous justice system initiatives.

2016

The Department of Justice has been seeking diverse opinions for the criminal justice system review that the Minister of Justice is undertaking.

The Research and Statistics Division asked five Canadian academic/legal experts to write short exploratory papers about possibilities for reform to the Purpose and Principles of Sentencing in the Criminal Code. The papers are based on the writer's opinion as a result of their professional expertise, specifically with regard to criminal law sentencing. These papers reflect the opinions of the writers and are not official positions, nor are they academic research papers.


JustFacts: Offences Subject to a Mandatory Minimum Penalty

JustFacts: Child-Related Sexual Offences Subject to a Mandatory Minimum Penalty

JustFacts: Drug Offences Subject to a Mandatory Minimum Penalty

JustFacts: Firearm-Related Offences Subject to a Mandatory Minimum Penalty

JustFacts: Indigenous overrepresentation in provincial/territorial corrections

JustFacts: Compliance with Family Support Obligations

JustFacts: Economic Consequences of Divorce and Separation

JustFacts: Family Law Cases

JustFacts: Family Structure in Canada

JustFacts: Mobility and Relocation in the Context of Family Law

JustFacts: Self-Represented Litigants in Family Law

Synthesis of Findings from Selected Reviews of the Criminal Justice System in Canada and Internationally - Cherami Wichmann

The purpose of this project was to collect and synthesize information about the approaches taken by other jurisdictions (in Canada or internationally) in their reviews of the CJS, as well as look at what other jurisdictions have focused on for reforms. This study intended to measure the community impact of hate-motivated crimes.

If you would like to receive a copy of this report, please send an email to rsd-drs@justice.gc.ca

Book-Ending the Problem of Bail: Examining the Front and Back Ends of Bail in Canada - Cheryl Marie Webster in collaboration with Jane B. Sprott, Anthony N. Doob, and Megan Mitchell

This report argues that the ‘bail problem’ is different from the ‘remand problem’ and that there are many components of both. The authors compare data from specific jurisdictions and discuss how court procedures and police decisions influence both bail and remand. A scan of bail practices/legislation in several other countries are also included, as well as some thoughts on potential reform.

If you would like to receive a copy of this report, please send an email to rsd-drs@justice.gc.ca

PLEI Guidelines Project - Community Legal Education Ontario

The project has investigated the following research questions:

  1. What could guidelines for PLEI look like?
  2. How does a sample of existing criminal law PLEI measure up to the potential guidelines?
  3. What exists in terms of automated tools, and other technology that might assist in applying these guidelines?
  4. What do PLEI providers think about the guidelines?

If you would like to receive a copy of this report, please send an email to rsd-drs@justice.gc.ca

Sentencing in Canada: A compendium of sentencing data sources and statistics

A variety of Canadian sentencing statistics provide a synopsis of national and provincial sentencing data. The first two sections of this report present statistics collected and published by the Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics (CCJS), a division of Statistics Canada (StatCan). The final section of this report presents statistics and findings drawn from Public Safety Canada's publication series Correctional and Conditional Release: Statistical Overview.

If you would like to receive a copy of this report, please send an email to rsd-drs@justice.gc.ca

The Roundtable Discussion on Mental Health: First Responders, and a Sane Response

This paper is a summary of a roundtable discussion on mental health issues and the "first response" hosted in 2015 by the Department of Justice and Public Safety Canada. This report includes seven short papers providing details of community-level programs.

If you would like to receive a copy of this report, please send an email to rsd-drs@justice.gc.ca

The Practice of Family Law in Canada: Results from a Survey of Participants at the 2016 National Family Law Program - Lorne D. Bertrand, Ph.D. Joanne J. Paetsch, B.A., John-Paul E. Boyd, M.A., LL.B., Nicholas Bala, L.S.M., J.D., LL.M., Canadian Research Institute for law and the family

The results of surveys conducted by the National Family Law Program (NFLP) to obtain data on the experience and caseloads of family law lawyers and the judiciary. The data set is available upon request from the Research and Statistics Division at Justice.

Read the Executive Summary of this report.

If you would like to receive a copy of this report, please send an email to rsd-drs@justice.gc.ca

A Report on the Relationship between Restorative Justice and Indigenous Legal Traditions in Canada - Prof. Larry Chartrand and Kanatase Horn

This report discusses the similarities and differences between restorative justice and Indigenous legal systems.

Exemptions from Mandatory Minimum Penalties - Recent Developments in Selected Countries - Yvon Dandurand

This report explores the question of mandatory minimum penalties and their impact on recidivism, the criminal justice process and prisons. It highlights the application of mandatory minimum penalties and reviews the experience of selected jurisdictions where exemptions or other forms of relief have been instituted.

The Federal Victim Surcharge - The 2013 Amendments and their Implementation in Nine Jurisdictions - Moira A. Law

This report examines how the 2013 amendments to the Criminal Code, which doubled the amount of the federal victim surcharge (FVS) and removed judicial discretion of a waiver, have been enforced in several jurisdictions.

Youth Criminal Justice in Canada: A Compendium of Statistics

This compendium presents an overview of statistical information on Canada's youth criminal justice system, including information on youth contact with the police, youth courts, and the youth correctional system from 1999 (a few years before implementation of the Youth Criminal Justice Act, YCJA, 2003) to the most recent year with available data.

If you would like to receive a copy of this report, please send an email to rsd-drs@justice.gc.ca

Forensic Mental Health, FASD, and neurocognitive disorders roundtable - Kaitlyn McLachlan, Ph.D., C. Psych.

Justice Canada hosted a roundtable of experts to explore how criminal justice decision makers might obtain information about an accused person's neurocognitive disabilities using the forensic mental health system.

If you would like to receive a copy of this report, please send an email to rsd-drs@justice.gc.ca

Programming Responses for Intimate Partner Violence - Lisa Heslop, Tim Kelly, Randal David, Katreena Scott
This report was undertaken to provide a better understanding of the current landscape of programming aimed at perpetrators of Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) across Canada.
Mandatory Minimum Penalties in Canada: Analysis and Annotated Bibliography - Kyle Coady and Kari Glynes Elliott

This document summarizes core findings on Mandatory Minimum Penalties (MMPs) in Canada. Information and evidence are drawn from refereed publications and journals, policy/position papers, and key monographs; these publications focus on the Canadian MMP experience. This paper reviews core research findings and ideas on MMPs in Canada by showing how they are defined, their history, how they are used, and how they impact key legal system players in the sentencing process.

Criminal Justice System Review: Performance Measurement Indicators - Marsha Axford

This report outlines the key steps in the development of a performance measurement framework for the criminal justice system. It focuses on the criteria for a successful framework and the development of justice indicators, based on best practices identified in the literature.

If you would like to receive a copy of this report, please send an email to rsd-drs@justice.gc.ca

2015

Resources for Conducting Research and Evaluation of Child Advocacy Centres & Child and Youth Advocacy Centres

Beginning in 2012, the Department of Justice Canada undertook a five-year, multi-site study of Child Advocacy Centres (CAC) and Child and Youth Advocacy Centres (CYAC) in Canada. This resource kit consists of the data collection instruments created by Proactive Information Services Inc., including interview guides, survey scripts, assent forms, client case file data collection manuals and tools.

If you would like to receive a copy of this report, please send an email to rsd-drs@justice.gc.ca

Evidence Supporting National Guidelines for Canada's Child Advocacy Centres - Lorne D. Bertrand, Ph.D., Joanne J. Paetsch, B.A., John-Paul Boyd, M.A., LL.B., Nicholas Bala, LL.M., F.R.S.C

This project reviews national and international research to provide the evidence, background and context to support the rationale for each of the ten draft guidelines proposed for Canadian Child Advocacy Centres.

If you would like to receive a copy of this report, please send an email to rsd-drs@justice.gc.ca

Closed-circuit Television for Young Witnesses - Pamela Hurley and Shanna Hickey

The purpose of this study is to better understand the use of closed-circuit television (CCTV) in the West Region of Ontario and to explore how, or if, the use of CCTV helps facilitate giving evidence, improve the quality of testimony and minimize stress and re-victimization for child and youth witnesses.

If you would like to receive a copy of this report, please send an email to rsd-drs@justice.gc.ca

"Broken Bail" in Canada: How We Might Go About Fixing It - Cheryl Marie Webster

This study explores the phenomenon of Canada's "broken bail system", which the author identifies as not only the bail process (i.e. the criminal procedure of determining whether an accused detained by the police will be released or formally detained until trial) but also remand (i.e. the detention of these accused in provincial/territorial custody awaiting either a bail determination or, having forgone or been denied bail, the resolution of their court case).

If you would like to receive a copy of this report, please send an email to rsd-drs@justice.gc.ca

The Mentally Ill: How They Became Enmeshed in the Criminal Justice System and How We Might Get Them Out - The Hon. Mr. Justice Richard D. Schneider

This report discusses how individuals with mental illness become involved in the criminal justice system and presents strategies to reduce their over-representation.

Child Advocacy Centres and Child and Youth Advocacy Centres in Canada: National Operational Survey Results - Shanna Hickey

The Department of Justice designed this study to collect operational data such as the CACs/CYACs stage of development, the services they provide, and how they provide these services. To do this, an electronic survey was developed to answer the following research questions:

  • What services are provided/will be provided by CACs/CYACs across Canada?
  • How are/will services be provided to clients of CACs/CYACs in Canada?

If you would like to receive a copy of this report, please send an email to rsd-drs@justice.gc.ca

Building Legal Literacy, Preventing Crisis - Sarah McCoubrey

A report that focuses on improving legal literacy to improve access to justice and develop trust in the criminal justice system.

If you would like to receive a copy of this report, please send an email to rsd-drs@justice.gc.ca

2014

The Impacts of Public Legal Education in Canada

This study investigates the impact of public legal education activities in Canada with a view to helping organizations improve access to justice.

If you would like to receive a copy of this report, please send an email to rsd-drs@justice.gc.ca

Representation of Aboriginal People in the Canadian Criminal Justice System - Karen Beattie, Valérie Bourdeau, and Menaka Raguparan

A fact sheet based on available published literature on Aboriginal people and their representation in the Canadian criminal justice system. The information presented includes data for adults and youth among police, court, correctional service and conditional releases statistics.

If you would like to receive a copy of this report, please send an email to rsd-drs@justice.gc.ca

The Examination and Cross-Examination of Children in Criminal Proceedings: A Review of the International Literature - Tamara Jordan

This report examines how seven countries, Australia, New Zealand, England and Wales, the United States, South Africa, Israel and Norway, handle the examination and cross-examination of child witnesses in the criminal justice system.

If you would like to receive a copy of this report, please send an email to rsd-drs@justice.gc.ca

2013

JustFacts: Children's Advocacy Centres

Representation of Visible Minorities in the Canadian Criminal Justice System - Karen Beattie, Valérie Bourdeau, and Menaka Raguparan

A fact sheet based on available published literature on visible minorities and their representation in the Canadian criminal justice system. The information represents adults and youth among police, court, correctional service and conditional release statistics.

If you would like to receive a copy of this report, please send an email to rsd-drs@justice.gc.ca

The Justice System Costs of Administration of Justice Offences in Canada, 2009

The Research and Statistics Division used data from the Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics to estimate the costs associated with police, court, prosecution, legal aid, and corrections resulting from AOJOs (a suite of offences classified by the common theme of a perpetrator willfully attempting to obstruct the course of justice and/or disobeying various orders sanctioned by the court) committed by both adults and youth.

If you would like to receive a copy of this report, please send an email to rsd-drs@justice.gc.ca

Police and Judicial Detention and Release Characteristics: Data from the Justice Effectiveness Study - Karen Beattie, André Solecki and Kelly E. Morton Bourgon

The purpose of this research is to provide information regarding the detention and release practices of police and of the court, while also providing data on the characteristics of accused subject to these decisions.

If you would like to receive a copy of this report, please send an email to rsd-drs@justice.gc.ca

Administration of Justice Offences Among Aboriginal People: Court Officials' Perspective - Mylène Magrinelli Orsi and Sébastien April

This research seeks to learn about the experiences and perceptions of court officials regarding:

  • AOJOs most frequently committed by Aboriginal people—adults and youth;
  • The factors that contribute to the commission of AOJOs among Aboriginal people;
  • Individuals with the most influence on reducing AOJOs among Aboriginal people;
  • Strategies to prevent AOJOs among Aboriginal people.

If you would like to receive a copy of this report, please send an email to rsd-drs@justice.gc.ca

Administration of Justice Offences: Aboriginal Courtwork Program Clients' Perspective - Mylène Magrinelli Orsi and Sébastien April

Aboriginal courtworkers (hereinafter courtworkers) provide Aboriginal people charged with a criminal offence with information about the criminal justice system, to assist them during the court process and to direct them to the appropriate legal, social and community justice programs. The purpose of this study is to learn the perceptions of ACW program clients with regard to the following:

  1. the most commonly committed AOJOs
  2. the reasons given for these offences
  3. the conditions that were imposed on them by the court, if any.

If you would like to receive a copy of this report, please send an email to rsd-drs@justice.gc.ca

A Gender Based Analysis of the Services Provided by the Aboriginal Courtwork Program - Mylène Magrinelli Orsi

The main purpose of this research was to identify, from the perspective of courtworkers, the types of services most commonly delivered to male and female clients and any gaps in services that could be provided to male, female and youth clients.

If you would like to receive a copy of this report, please send an email to rsd-drs@justice.gc.ca

Profiling Aboriginal Women in the Canadian Correctional System – 2010/2011 - Karen Beattie

This report focuses on the representation of Aboriginal women in federal and provincial/territorial correctional institutions, using data mainly from the Integrated Correctional Services Survey (ICSS) and Adult Correctional Services Survey (ACS).

If you would like to receive a copy of this report, please send an email to rsd-drs@justice.gc.ca

Description and processing of Individuals found Not Criminally Responsible on Account of Mental Disorder accused of "serious violent offences" - Anne G. Crocker, Ph.D., Michael C. Seto, Ph.D., Tonia L. Nicholls, Ph.D., and Gilles Côté, Ph.D.

At the request of the Department of Justice's Research and Statistics Division, the authors examined the following questions using National Trajectory Project (NTP) data:

  1. What was the primary psychiatric diagnosis at the time of the index offence?
  2. What were the initial dispositions after the NCRMD verdict for the most serious offence?
  3. How many prior violent and total convictions did persons found NCRMD have, by most serious offence at verdict?
  4. What was the average length of time under the Review Board and in detention?
  5. How many persons found NCRMD for serious violent offences had reoffended while under a Review Board disposition?

If you would like to receive a copy of this report, please send an email to rsd-drs@justice.gc.ca

The Costs of the Youth Criminal Justice System 2010 - Ting Zhang, Ph.D., Josh Hoddenbagh, M.A.

In this study, we examine five major sectors of the youth criminal justice system: police, court, prosecution, legal aid, and youth justice programs and services to estimate the comprehensive costs.

If you would like to receive a copy of this report, please send an email to rsd-drs@justice.gc.ca

2012

Exploring the Community Impact of Hate-Motivated Crimes - Sidikat Fashola

This study intended to measure the community impact of hate-motivated crimes.

If you would like to receive a copy of this report, please send an email to rsd-drs@justice.gc.ca

Addressing the Needs of Child Victims and Their Families: the Role of the Victim Advocate - Melissa Northcott

This report will examine the needs of child victims and their families and how various children's advocacy centres (CACs), both established and in development, respond to these needs through victim support and advocacy services.

If you would like to receive a copy of this report, please send an email to rsd-drs@justice.gc.ca

Section 810 Peace Bonds: Stakeholder Perceptions and Experiences - André Solecki, MA

This study examines two types of section 810 peace bonds: section 810.1 peace bonds, where there is "fear of a sexual offence on a person less than 16 years of age," otherwise referred to as "sex offence bonds," and section 810.2 peace bonds, where there is "fear of a serious personal injury offence," otherwise referred to as "personal injury bonds."

If you would like to receive a copy of this report, please send an email to rsd-drs@justice.gc.ca

The Economic Impact of Firearm-related Crime in Canada, 2008 - Ting Zhang, Ph.D., Yao Qin

The present study provides estimates of the economic and social costs of firearm-related crime in Canada.

Intimidation of Justice System Participants: General Overview of Literature and Reports - Valérie Bourdeau

The purpose of this study was to develop a better understanding of what has been written on the subject of the intimidation of justice system participants in Canada.

If you would like to receive a copy of this report, please send an email to rsd-drs@justice.gc.ca

2011

Building a Case for Public Legal Education and Information: Lessons Learned Report

The Lessons Learned report presents the results of the Building a Case for Public Education and Information (PLEI) Project. The main purpose of this project was to review and analyze recent Canadian PLEI evaluation research in order to assess the degree to which it measures the outcomes, impacts and benefits of PLEI, and to describe the limitations, promising approaches and lessons learned in the research.

If you would like to receive a copy of this report, please send an email to rsd-drs@justice.gc.ca

Credit for Pre-Sentencing Custody: Data from Five Canadian Courts

This report provides data on the use of pre-sentencing custody credits in five locations across Canada. While this study has some limitations, it is the first of its kind in Canada, and provides a baseline picture of the state of pre sentencing custody credits prior to any changes made by legislation.

This report is also available on the website of the Parliament of Canada.

If you would like to receive a copy of this report, please send an email to rsd-drs@justice.gc.ca

Recidivism Among Impaired Drivers - André Solecki, MA

This report examined impaired driving recidivism using the criminal history data of impaired driving offenders.

If you would like to receive a copy of this report, please send an email to rsd-drs@justice.gc.ca

Environmental Scan: Risk Factors for Delinquency among Young People from Official Language Minority Communities - Mylène Magrinelli Orsi and Sébastien April

The Forum on Vulnerable Young Francophones in Minority Communities who are at risk of becoming involved with the justice system brought together officials from federal institutions and representatives from community organizations to discuss the needs of this target population.

If you would like to receive a copy of this report, please send an email to rsd-drs@justice.gc.ca

2010

Justiciable Problems and Social Exclusion - Ab Currie

This paper examines the incidence and patterns of justiciable and non-legal problems among a group of highly disadvantaged people in Vancouver and Victoria, British Columbia, Canada.

If you would like to receive a copy of this report, please send an email to rsd-drs@justice.gc.ca

Restitution in Saskatchewan - Susan McDonald, Melissa Northcott and Jacinthe Loubier

This study was initiated to gain a greater understanding of how restitution is working in Saskatchewan and to better understand the application of restitution orders as part of the sentencing process, including their impact on the system, victims and offenders.

If you would like to receive a copy of this report, please send an email to rsd-drs@justice.gc.ca

An Analysis of the use of the Faint Hope Clause - Lisa Ha

The purpose of this study is to understand how the ‘faint hope clause’ has been applied using an extract of data from the Correctional Service of Canada’s Offender Management System.

If you would like to receive a copy of this report, please send an email to rsd-drs@justice.gc.ca

2009

Lives of Trouble: Criminal Offending and the Problems of Everyday Life – Ab Currie

A report on data from the 2008 National Survey of Justiciable Problems, a random survey of 7002 Canadians 18 years of age and older conducted by telephone in January and February 2008.

If you would like to receive a copy of this report, please send an email to rsd-drs@justice.gc.ca

Hate as an Aggravating Factor in Sentencing in Canada - Austin Lawrence, with Julie Shugarman and Diana Grech

This study was conducted to examine how courts have applied hate as an aggravating factor at sentencing (section 718.2(a)(i) of the Criminal Code).

If you would like to receive a copy of this report, please send an email to rsd-drs@justice.gc.ca

DNA Orders Issued in Adult Criminal Court: A National DNA Utilization Study - Kelly E. Morton Bourgon, Paul Verbrugge and Kimberly Burnett

The purpose of this research is to determine how often DNA orders are made in criminal courts across Canada (utilization rate) for both primary and secondary designated offence convictions, what factors are related to receiving a DNA order, the recidivism rate of offenders who have received a DNA order and the proportion of DNA orders made by the courts that do not result in a DNA flag on the offender’s Canadian Police Information Centre (CPIC) record.

If you would like to receive a copy of this report, please send an email to rsd-drs@justice.gc.ca

The Incidence of Justiciable Problems in Civil Matters in Canada: Three National Surveys in 2004, 2006 and 2008 - Ab Currie

A review of surveys from 2004, 2006 and 2008 on serious and difficult to resolve legal problems.

If you would like to receive a copy of this report, please send an email to rsd-drs@justice.gc.ca

Public Confidence in the Justice System - Susan McDonald, Jim Sturrock, Paul Verbrugge, and Ting Li

This report presents the findings from the Public Confidence in the Justice System Survey that was conducted in Canada in March 2007.

If you would like to receive a copy of this report, please send an email to rsd-drs@justice.gc.ca

2008

The Federal Victim Surcharge in the Northwest Territories - Lisa Ha

This study seeks to answer specific questions about the victim surcharge, which is an additional penalty automatically imposed on offenders at the time of sentencing. Such surcharges are used to help fund programs, services and assistance to victims of crime within the provinces and territories. 2008

If you would like to receive a copy of this report, please send an email to rsd-drs@justice.gc.ca

Youth Perspectives on their Experience of Custody and Reintegration in Canada - Kelly E. Morton Bourgon, Kimberly Burnett, and Jo-Anne Chrétien

This report outlines how youth are spending their time in custody and the community and how this affected their experiences in the custodial facility and in the community.

If you would like to receive a copy of this report, please send an email to rsd-drs@justice.gc.ca

2006

Police Classification of Sexual Assault Cases as Unfounded - An Exploratory Study - Linda Light and Gisela Ruebsaat

This report explores the proportion of sexual assault allegations that are classified as “unfounded” by police. The study was conducted using a file review methodology from four police services in British Columbia.

Highlights of this report are available in JustResearch no. 14.

If you would like to receive a copy of this report, please send an email to rsd-drs@justice.gc.ca

2005

Historical Profile of the Côte-Nord Area’s Mixed European Indian or Mixed European Inuit Ancestry Community - Laurier Turgeon, Louis-Pascal Rousseau, Julie Lavigne and David Lessard (of Circare Consultants)

Through the use of archival and published documents, this paper explores one of the selected geographic areas; the Côte-Nord region of Québec. This study examines the social history, demographic and genealogical background of the Côte-Nord European-Indian and European-Inuit ancestry population, as well as the distinctive cultural practices of the European-Indian and European-Inuit ancestry group.

If you would like to receive a copy of this report, please send an email to rsd-drs@justice.gc.ca

Historical Profile of the Cumberland Lake Area’s Mixed European-Indian Ancestry Community - Michael Cottrell, Elizabeth Mooney, John Lagimodiere and Terrance Pelletier (for Dona Conna Inc.)

Through the use of archival and published documents, this paper explores one of the selected geographic areas; the Cumberland Lake region of Saskatchewan and Manitoba. This study examines the social history and demographic background of the Cumberland Lake European-Indian ancestry population, as well as the distinctive cultural practices of the European-Indian ancestry group.

If you would like to receive a copy of this report, please send an email to rsd-drs@justice.gc.ca

Historical Profile of the James Bay Area’s Mixed European-Indian Ancestry Community - Gwen Dianne Reimer, Ph.D. (Principal Investigator), Jean-Philippe Chartrand, M.A. (Co-investigator), Public History Inc.

Through the use of archival and published documents, this paper explores one of the selected geographic areas, the James Bay region of Ontario. This study examines the social history and demographic background of the James Bay European-Indian ancestry population, as well as the distinctive cultural practices of the European-Indian ancestry group.

If you would like to receive a copy of this report, please send an email to rsd-drs@justice.gc.ca

Historical Profile of the Wabasca-Desmarais Area’s Mixed European-Indian Ancestry Community - Matthew LaCompte, Carol Hodgson, William Cornish, Jonathan Hart, and Joan Holmes (for Joan Holmes & Associates Inc.)

Through the use of archival and published documents, this paper explores one of the selected geographic areas, the Wabasca-Desmarais region of Alberta. This study examines the social history and demographic background of the Wabasca-Desmarais European-Indian ancestry population, as well as the distinctive cultural practices of the European-Indian ancestry group.

If you would like to receive a copy of this report, please send an email to rsd-drs@justice.gc.ca

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