Fact Sheet: Working with victims of hateFootnote 1Footnote 2

PDF version

Compared to before their victimization, victims of hate crimes often:

Compared with non-hate crime victims, hate crime victims are more likely to:


Abu-Ras, W. M., & Suarez, Z. E. (2009). Muslim men and women’s perception of discrimination, hate crimes, and PTSD symptoms post 9/11. Traumatology, 15(3), 48–63. https://doi.org/10.1177/1534765609342281

Alhaboby, Z. A., Barnes, J., Evans, H., & Short, E. (2019). Cyber-victimization of people with chronic conditions and disabilities: A systematic review of scope and impact. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, 20(3), 398–415. https://doi.org/10.1177/1524838017717743

Ashraf, A., & Nassar, S. (2018). American Muslims and vicarious trauma: An explanatory concurrent mixed-methods study. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 88(5), 516–528. https://doi.org/10.1037/ort0000354

Awan, I., & Zempi, I. (2015). We fear for our lives: Offline and online experiences of anti-Muslim hostility.

Boeckmann, R. J., & Turpin‐Petrosino, C. (2002). Understanding the harm of hate crime. Journal of social issues, 58(2), 207-225.

Burton, C. M., Marshal, M. P., Chisolm, D. J., Sucato, G. S., & Friedman, M. S. (2013). Sexual minority-related victimization as a mediator of mental health disparities in sexual minority youth: A longitudinal analysis. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 42(3), 394–402. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-012-9901-5

Casarez-Levison, R.  (1992). An empirical investigation of coping strategies used by victims of crime: Victimization redefined.  In E.  Viano (ed.) Critical issues in victimology: International perspectives (pp. 46-57).  New York: Springer Publishing Co.

Craig-Henderson, K., & Sloan, L. R. (2003). After the hate: Helping psychologists help victims of racist hate crime. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 10(4), 481–490. https://doi.org/10.1093/clipsy.bpg048

Cramer, R. J., Wright, S., Long, M. M., Kapusta, N. D., Nobles, M. R., Gemberling, T. M., & Wechsler, H. J. (2018). On hate crime victimization: Rates, types, and links with suicide risk among sexual orientation minority special interest group members. Journal of Trauma & Dissociation, 19(4), 476–489. https://doi.org/10.1080/15299732.2018.1451972

Dunbar, E. (2006). Race, gender, and sexual orientation in hate crime victimization: Identity politics or identity risk? Violence and Victims, 21(3), 323-337.

Duncan, D. T, & Hatzenbuehler, M. (2014). Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender hate crimes and suicidality among a population-based sample of sexual-minority adolescents inBoston. American Journal of Public Health, 104(2), 272-278.

Feddes, A. R., & Jonas, K. J. (2020). Associations between Dutch LGBT hate crime experience, well-being, trust in the police and future hate crime reporting. Social Psychology, 51(3), 171–182. https://doi.org/10.1027/1864-9335/a000409

Funnell, C. (2015). Racist hate crime and the mortified self: An ethnographic study of the impact of victimization. International Review of Victimology, 21(1), 71–83. https://doi.org/10.1177/0269758014551497

Garnetts, L, Herek, G. M., & Levy, B. (1990). Violence and victimization of lesbians and gay men: Mental health consequences. Journal of interpersonal violence, 5(3), 366-383.

Gerstenfeld, P. B. 2002. A time to hate:  Situational antecedents of intergroup bias. Analysis of Social Issues and Public Policy, 61-67.

Herek, G. M., Cogan, J. C., & Gillis, J. R. (2002). Victim experiences in hate crimes based on sexual orientation. Journal of social issues, 58(2), 319-339.

Herek, G. M., Gillis, J. R., & Cogan, J. C. (1999). Psychological sequelae of hate-crime victimization among lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults. Journal of consulting and clinical psychology, 67(6), 945.

Herek, G. M., Gillis, J. R., Cogan, J. C., & Glunt, E. K. (1997). Hate crime victimization among lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults: Prevalence, psychological correlates, and methodological issues. Journal of interpersonal violence, 12(2), 195-215.

Huang, C. Y., & Tsai, W. (2022). Asian American parents’ experiences of stress, discrimination, and mental health during COVID-19. Families, Systems, & Health. https://doi.org/10.1037/fsh0000715

Huynh, V. W., Raval, V. V., & Freeman, M. (2022). Ethnic-racial discrimination towards Asian Americans amidst COVID-19, the so-called “China” virus and associations with mental health. Asian American Journal of Psychology, 13(3), 259–269. https://doi.org/10.1037/aap0000264

Inman, E. M., Bermejo, R. M., McDanal, R., Nelson, B., Richmond, L. L., Schleider, J. L., & London, B. (2021). Discrimination and psychosocial engagement during the COVID-19 pandemic. Stigma and Health, 6(4), 380–383. https://doi.org/10.1037/sah0000349

Janoff, D. V. (2005). Pink blood: Homophobic violence in Canada. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

Kaysen, D., Lostutter, T. W., & Goines, M. A. (2005). Cognitive processing therapy for acute stress disorder resulting from an anti-gay assault. Cognitive and behavioral practice, 12(3), 278-289.

Kuehnle, K., & Sullivan, A. (2003). Gay and lesbian victimization: Reporting factors in domestic violence and bias incidents. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 30(1), 85-96.

Lee, S., & Waters, S. F. (2021). Asians and Asian Americans’ experiences of racial discrimination during the COVID-19 pandemic: Impacts on health outcomes and the buffering role of social support. Stigma and Health, 6(1), 70–78. https://doi.org/10.1037/sah0000275

Lieberman, J. D., Arndt, J., Personius, J., & Cook, A. (2001). Vicarious annihilation: The effect of mortality salience on perceptions of hate crimes. Law and Human Behavior, 25, 547-566.

Mason, G. (2005). Hate crime and the image of the stranger. British Journal of Criminology, 45(6), 837-859.

Mason-Bish, H., & Duggan, M. (2020). ‘Some men deeply hate women, and express that hatred freely’: Examining victims’ experiences and perceptions of gendered hate crime. International Review of Victimology, 26(1), 112–134. https://doi.org/10.1177/0269758019872903

Messner, S. F., McHugh, S., & Felson, R. B. (2004). Distinctive characteristics of assaults motivated by bias. Criminology, 42(3), 585-618.

Mjoseth, J. (1998). Psychologists call for assault on hate crimes. American Psychological Association Monitor, 29(1).

Moradi, B., & Risco, C. (2006). Perceived discrimination experiences and mental health of Latina/o american persons. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 53(4), 411.

Rose, S. M., & Mechanic, M. B. (2002). Psychological distress, crime features, and help-seeking behaviors related to homophobic bias incidents. American Behavioral Scientist, 46(1), 14-26.

Rosenwasser, P. (2000). Tool for transformation: Cooperative inquiry as a process for healing from internalized oppression. Paper presented at AERC 2000: An International Conference of the Adult Education Research Conference, Vancouver, BC. http://www.edst.educ.ubc.ca/aerc/2000/rosenwasserp1-web.htm

Sheehan, B. E., Maduro, R. S., & Derlega, V. J. (2021). Sexual/gender minority-related individual differences predict likelihood of social action after a hate crime. Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity, 8(1), 48–56. https://doi.org/10.1037/sgd0000419

Staub, E. (1996). Preventing genocide: Activating bystanders, helping victims, and the creation of caring. Peace and Conflict, 2(3), 189-200.

Wertheimer, D. M. (1990). Treatment and service interventions for lesbian and gay male crime victims. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 5(3), 384-400.