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About the criminal justice system review

The Government of Canada has completed a broad examination of Canada’s criminal justice system. This work comes in response to the 2015 mandate letter to the Minister of Justice and Attorney General of Canada to conduct a review of the changes made to the criminal justice system and of the sentencing reforms made in the last decade.

Over three years, people across the country were able to provide their views and feedback through a variety of platforms. Consultations examined ways to strengthen and modernize the system. This included working with multiple levels of government and civil society to find integrated solutions that could improve outcomes for people involved in, or at risk of becoming involved in, the criminal justice system.

What We Heard

From May 2016 to April 2018, the Government of Canada engaged with stakeholders, partners, and Canadians across the country to discuss how to transform the criminal justice system. The review of the criminal justice system summarizes what was heard from the more than 11,000 Canadians who participated, captured in four reports. The reports, including the final report, are available to Canadians.

Nineteen provincial and territorial roundtables, four community roundtables, and four roundtable discussions on the interaction of the criminal justice system with other social systems, took place as part of these consultations. Participants included representatives from non-governmental organizations representing victims, offenders, police, prosecutors, defence lawyers, members of professional legal associations, judges, provincial and territorial government officials, Indigenous leaders, academics and mental health professionals.

Final report on the review of Canada’s criminal justice system

Consultation with Canadians report

Report on provincial and territorial stakeholder consultations

Round table report: Rethinking criminal justice in Canada

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Why change is needed

Despite its many strengths, there are aspects of Canada’s criminal justice system that point to several challenges:

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Overrepresentation of Indigenous people

In Canada, Indigenous people are most at-risk of becoming involved with the criminal justice system, both as victims and offenders. Indigenous people make up only about four percent of the population, but account for more than one-quarter of those in federal correctional populations.

Indigenous people are also more likely to be victims of crime. Reducing the rate of incarceration and of victimization of Indigenous people is a priority for the federal government and responds to the calls to action related to justice from the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada.

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Overrepresentation of vulnerable and marginalized people

Individuals with mental illness and with problematic substance use, and others who are marginalized due to race, ethnicity, and socio-economic characteristics, are disproportionately represented in the criminal justice system.

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Victims and Survivors of Crime

Victims and survivors of crime can feel isolated, re-victimized, and voiceless as they seek justice for crimes perpetrated against them. This can have an impact on the willingness to report crimes such as sexual assault, which has a low reporting rate.

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Criminal Law and Procedure

There are concerns that certain provisions and procedures disproportionately impact marginalized populations and may result in negative outcomes for many in contact with the system. Delays in the system also impact victims and their families, and can take a toll on their mental health.

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